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      A
      Angola
      Argentina
      Australia
      Azerbaijan
      B
      Bangladesh
      Benin
      Brazil
      C
      Cambodia
      Canada
      Chile
      China
      Colombia
      Cote d'Ivoire
      Croatia
      E
      Ecuador
      Egypt
      Ethiopia
      F
      France
      G
      Germany
      Ghana
      Guinea
      I
      India
      Indonesia
      Italy
      J
      Japan
      Jordan
      K
      Kazakhstan
      Kenya
      M
      Malaysia
      Mexico
      Morocco
      Myanmar
      N
      New Zealand
      Nigeria
      P
      Pakistan
      Paraguay
      Peru
      Philippines
      Poland
      R
      Romania
      Russia
      Rwanda
      S
      Saudi Arabia
      Senegal
      Singapore
      South Africa
      South Korea
      Spain
      T
      Tanzania
      Thailand
      Tunisia
      Turkey
      U
      United Kingdom
      United States
      Uruguay
      V
      Vietnam

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      Total forecast infrastructure investment gaps

      • >$200 billion
      • $150-$200 billion
      • $100-$150 billion
      • $50-$100 billion
      • $0-$50 billion
      • N/A
      • >2%
      • 1.5% - 2%
      • 1% - 1.5%
      • 0.5% - 1%
      • 0% - 0.5%
      • N/A
      close
      Energy
      Telecommunications
      Transport: Airport
      Transport: Ports
      Transport: Rail
      Transport: Road
      Water
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      • Africa
      • Americas
      • Asia
      • Europe
      • Oceania
      • World

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      Total forecast infrastructure investment gaps

      • >$4,000 billion
      • $3,000 - $4,000 billion
      • $2,000 - $3,000 billion
      • $1,000 - $2,000 billion
      • $0 - $1,000 billion
      • N/A
      • >1%
      • 0.75% - 1%
      • 0.5% - 0.75%
      • 0.25% - 0.5%
      • 0% - 0.25%
      • N/A

      About

      Global Infrastructure Outlook allows you to explore the annual infrastructure trends, needs and gaps up to 2040 for 7 sectors, 56 countries, 5 regions and the world total. You can explore the implications of alternative GDP growth rates for infrastructure investment needs, and meeting the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals for universal access to electricity and water for investment need.

      Methodology

      A top-down econometric approach using panel data to draw inferences on infrastructure investment.

      Two forecasts are developed:

      • 'current trend' in infrastructure investment under the assumption that countries continue to invest in line with current trends, with growth occurring only in response to changes in each country’s economic and demographic fundamentals; and
      • an 'investment need' forecast to demonstrate the investment that would occur if countries were to match the performance of their best performing peers, after controlling for differences in the characteristics of each country.

      Regional and global totals are estimated by scaling up results from the sample of 50 countries included in the study using GDP shares.

      Forecasts of the investment required to meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals for universal access to electricity, water and sanitation are calculated for low and middle income countries where access is currently less than 100 percent.

      Global Infrastructure Outlook was first released in July covering 50 major countries around the world. It was updated in 2018 to 56 countries to include, at the time, the 10 African countries participating in the G20 Compact with Africa. A full explanation of the methodology can be found in both the 2017 report, and the 2018 report update.

      Downloads

      Factsheet 2017 Full Report Summary of 2018 Compact with Africa update 2018 Compact with Africa update report

      Acknowledgements

      The data from this website is from analysis and modelling by Oxford Economics, who the Global Infrastructure Hub engaged to produce Global Infrastructure Outlook. In undertaking this work Oxford Economics drew on information provided by third parties, upon which Oxford Economics has relied on in good faith. Oxford Economics has also relied on insights and knowledge developed from earlier research into infrastructure spending undertaken in conjunction with PwC.

      The Global Infrastructure Hub would like to extend our thanks to the peer reviewers from the following organisations who provided a large number of helpful comments and suggestions: Australian Treasury, The Brattle Group, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Inter-American Development Bank, International Monetary Fund, and the University of Cape Town.

      Global forecasts

      Investment estimates

      • $79 TrillionInvestment current trends
      • $94 TrillionInvestment needed
      • $15 TrillionInvestment gap
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      SDG Disclaimer - Includes the additional investment needed for countries that have not yet met the SDGs.

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      • Africa
      • Americas
      • Asia
      • Europe
      • Oceania
      • World

      Total forecast infrastructure investment gaps

      • >$4,000 billion
      • $3,000 - $4,000 billion
      • $2,000 - $3,000 billion
      • $1,000 - $2,000 billion
      • $0 - $1,000 billion
      • N/A
      • >1%
      • 0.75% - 1%
      • 0.5% - 0.75%
      • 0.25% - 0.5%
      • 0% - 0.25%
      • N/A
        Energy
        Telecommunications
        Transport: Airport
        Transport: Ports
        Transport: Rail
        Transport: Road
        Water